About 8,600 species of birds are arranged under two subclasses—Archaeornithes and Neornithes: Mesozoic ancestral or lizard birds with long tail and teeth in both the jaws. These birds first appeared in Cretaceous period and includes few extinct and all other birds known up to date. 5. 1. 4. 3. Because most birds fly, their metabolic rates are high (5-20x the resting metabolic rate of a running mammal) in order to efficiently process food. 3. Pygostyle absent. Fertilization internal. Bills short and slender; the base of beak covered by a soft skin bearing longitudinal slit-like nostril called cere. The bones of featherless wings flattened and united to form a powerful, resistant paddle or flipper moving only at the shoulder joint. The cervical and thoracic ribs probably devoid of uncinates. Feathers are without after shaft. Order Gruiformes – Examples. Otis (Bustards), Psophia (Trumpeters). 2. Except flamingos web between the toes are absent. 8. Birds face special challenges when it comes to obtaining nutrition from food. Examples: Herpaetes, Hypodermes, Calures, Pharomechrus, etc. 3. Tail vertebrae few and compressed posteriorly forming pygostyle in modern birds. Examples: Ansera, Coscoroba, Anas, Branta, Cairina, Somateria, Polysticta, Mergus, Oxyura, etc. Closely packed plumage; feathers small, scale-like, dense, over entire body without apteria. Neck and body thickly feathered; feathers with aftershaft. Content Guidelines 2. Feed on nectar, small insects and spiders from the blossom by tubular protrusible tongue and needle-like bill. 1. In this article we will discuss about the classification of Aves. Eggs with large amount of yolk, telolacithal; cleavage meroblastic. derived character) that will be (potentially) reflected in evolutionary divergences in the future – birds are the youngest class of vertebrates and on a lineage separate from mammals, therefore feathers are unique to Class Aves (unlike our past major evolutionary advancements from previous classes). The powerful, predaceous birds like vultures, kites, hawks, falcons, eagles etc. The skull proportionately large, with a rounded bird-like brain case and strong jaws, in each of which hearing a series of conical teeth lodged in socket. 4. Many old-world cuckoos are parasitic, the females lay eggs in the nest of other birds like crow, for incubation and rearing of young. Tongue fleshy, legs short. 6. 3. The feathers hair-like and soft; tail very long. In pelicans, body is heavy, bill up to 45 cm. 3. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. 3. Superorder Palaeognathae. Sternum un-keeled. 11. Examples: Pelecanus, Phalacrocorax, Sula, Anhinga, Fregata, Phaethon, etc.. 1. Limbs two pairs, the anterior pair modified as wings for flight, and the posterior pair adapted for perching, walking or swimming. 6. Examples: Charadrius, Jacana, Rostratula, Haemantopus, Vanellus, Gallimgo, Galidris, Numenius, Dromas, Glareola, Larus, Fratercula, Alca, etc. Each foot with 3 front toes, webbed at the base. Sternum keelless, pygostyle absent, long neck and sparsely feathered body. Diomedea (Albatrosses), Daption (Cape pigeon). Unit 2-3: Mechanisms of Evolution and Natural Selection, Unit 3a-1: Genetic Modification and Gene Transfer, Unit 5-3: Phylum Platyhelminthes – Webquest Notes, Unit 5-4: Phylum Nematoda – Webquest Notes. 1. Order Columbiformes – Examples. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Examples: Grus (Cranes), Rallus, Fulica, Gallinula, Otis, Rhynochetos, Turnix, Monias, etc. The neck is long. 5. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Zoology. Example. The superorder has seven orders of which two are extinct. Another great click-and-learn resource from HHMI – Comparing Anatomy of the Domestic Chicken – More evidence for the bird/theropod relationship! More or less long-legged (shore birds), strong-winged (gulls), or with only 3 toes and legs far back in position. Flightless birds adapted to aquatic life, from Eocene to recent. 5. Examples: Apus, Cypsiurns, Chaetura, Patagona, Loddigeria, etc. Sternum is keeled, and the palate palaeognathus. 15. ADVERTISEMENTS: ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the classification of birds. Legs are small. Large-sized flightless birds, descended from Volant ancestors at the end of the Mesozoic period. Body plumage fluffy, hair-like, without after shafts. Gregarious, penguins, wonderfully adapted to swimming and diving, confined to the southern part of South America, South Africa Australia, Antarctic regions and Galapagos Islands. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the classification of class aves. 3. Colius (Mouse birds).
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