These understandings were used in Chile to inform health policy during Salvador Allende’s tenure as Chile’s Minister of Health, 1938–1942. Women who present with serious health issues for themselves or for their fetus are strongly advised or even pressured into having an abortion. The United Nations General Assembly has voted against the US embargo every year since 1992, with only Israel consistently joining the USA in voting in support. r, 1996; Luow, 1997; Kolakowski, 1977; Talmon, e predicated on a belief in the collective unity, of the revolutionary vision, and its presum. 348–349). 0000038039 00000 n Moreover, Cuba has made a commitment to offer not just urgent care but to stay on as long as the host nation wants them to do so, moving from providing care to helping with longer-range public health needs and then working to train local doctors who work side by side with the Cuban physicians until the point arrives when the Cuban doctors are no longer needed. General practitioners (literally, doctors), once unknown in Cuba, now became the cornerstone of the health care, system. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Pol De Vos, “No One Left Abandoned” Cuba's National Health System since the 1959 Revo, “No One Left Abandoned” Cuba's National Health System since the 1959 Revolution.pdf, No One Left Abandoned” Cuba's National Health System since the 1959 Revolution.pdf, All content in this area was uploaded by Pol De Vos on Aug 02, 2018, No One Left Abandoned” Cuba's National Health System since the 1959 Revo, All content in this area was uploaded by Pol De Vos on Jul 09, 2018, All content in this area was uploaded by Pol De Vos on Oct 23, 2014, In spite of the economic hardships during the 1990s, Cuba has achieved health, indicators that are among the best in the world. Marrero, A., et al. (1990) Critical Medical Anthropology: ent-Day Cuba. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Particular attention is given to the prolonged US efforts to overthrow the Castro regime, involving the United States in violations of international law and crimes against humanity. Like China and Vietnam today, Cuba now “share[s] the belief that the market should not be identified exclusively with capitalism,” as analysts Burbach, Fox, and Fuentes have noted (Burbach, Fox, & Fuentes, 2013, p. 145), developing, as Cuba scholar William LeoGrande has termed it, a “market socialist economy” (LeoGrande, 2015a, p. 377). hÞb```b``_ÌÀÆÀÀ-Î È ì,ÃÑg,÷ú9*w¤¤¨K00Ø5L2Ùc$Æððòñs also been eliminated in Cuba, thanks to this program: diphtheria since 1980; measles, 1993; pertussis, 1994; and mumps and rubella, 1995. Medical students at ELAM do not learn how to operate the latest and more expensive equipment and receive less instruction in curative methods. Cuba’s proactive approach to health care delivers results but paternalism brings some compromises. the “health of the revolution” by monitoring their, who considered it part of his duty to the, One introductory textbook, for instance, (Rigol et, " ("a health militant"). 0000004040 00000 n and taxes. Most importantly, what proponents of social medicine most agree upon is that the state must play a central role in providing healthcare to its citizens as a basic human right (Hartmann, 2016, p. 2145; Huish, 2013, p. 35). During these years, the doctor-to-patient ratio improved threefold, and the number of consultarios (local doctors’ offices) rose from 6,000 in 1989 to nearly 16,000 by 1998. Today, Cuba sees about 125 new HIV cases per year, but there is no longer any cases of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Cuba. in 1993. 34 percent and the budget deficit increased to 37 percent of GNP. medicine and medical education. ethnographic and archival research in Cuba. Cuba exports pharmaceuticals to 40 nations, sending some 38 different products, all at lower prices than the global pharmaceutical firms. 0000008040 00000 n Before the Revolution, one in three Cuban people was infected with malaria. Goodwin informed the lawmakers that the best course of action would be to bomb Cuban industries. Together with a nurse, every GP is responsible for, first-line health care—including prevention, health education, curative care, and, rehabilitation—for a population of 500 to 800 persons. Women's reproductive and sexual rights are now secured and women are to be protected from gender-based violence in all its forms by legal mechanisms. It remains exclusively in the hands of the public, sector, and privatization is not an option. Moreover, the results of Cuba’s, biotechnology research are immediately available to the Cuban population free, of charge and are also used in most parts of Latin America (23). In Cuba, in 1961, the fertility rate (the number of children born per woman) was 4.36, but by 2012, this rate dropped to just 1.69. Implications of Cross-National Comparisons. At the time of the Revolution, Cuba was already well ahead of most Latin American nations in general economic conditions, boasting the third highest GDP per capita in the region, after Venezuela and Uruguay. In disaster relief situations, many countries will respond at the time of crisis but then will nearly always leave after a few weeks. Data from the WHO and PAHO confirm that this system is working reasonably well in lowering the overall incidence of those dealing with conditions like hypertension. Health writer Laurie Garrets adds that Cuban patients also have to pay for and bring “their own syringes … and towels” (Garrett, 2010, pp. Tancer, R. S. The pharmaceutical industry in Cuba. In 1994, U.S.$5.2 million was paid for the transport of medicines and, medical supplies from Europe and Asia, whereas the same supply from the United. Hence the popular Cuban joke, “We live like the, of preventive and curative health activities for the entire population according, to individual needs. This study analyzed three critical factors which influence succession plan: organizational awareness on the necessity of the succession plan, labor market condition to supply qualified candidates, and conducive environment. This event was strongly influenced, by a propaganda campaign by the United States to undermine the young revo, lution. But the country's stolid society has seen some impetus for change. Cuba’s physicians came from the better-off families, and they came to deeply oppose Castro’s Revolution. The two pregnant women who were diagnosed with Zika elected to have abortions. 9, 45; Kirk, 2009, p. 280; 2012, pp. 0000497963 00000 n ELAM offers medical training to students from around the developing world, with students from over 50 countries attending. 0000053448 00000 n Cuba made the largest commitment of any nation to assist the devastated nation, before, during, and staying long after the disaster (Castro, Melluish, & Lorenzo, 2014, pp. endstream endobj 176 0 obj <>stream differences among the behavior of such differentials according to analysis's bases, Cuba advances primary health care “The day we think we’re doing everything right is the day we’ve abandoned our patients,” says Dr Rebeca Mendoza, the director of a polyclinic in Havana, Cuba. Under the terms of the embargo, as modified in 1963, medicine and medical equipment could not be imported. The health care system is centralized and governed under the leadership of the Ministry of Health Care, which was established in 1976 to boost the knowledge, competencies, and responsibilities of health science professionals. Che offered to pay for all the properties expropriated after the Revolution, to refuse any alliance with the Soviet Union, to refrain from exporting socialist revolution to any other nation, and to hold elections, all in exchange for a US promise to not again invade Cuba, as it had in the Bay of Pigs. a success, and interferon is now used to treat cancers and viral infections. As reporter Karl Vick commented, “there’s almost no Internet outside major hotels, and [Cuba still has but] a creaking cell network [that] won’t support smartphones” (Vick, 2015, p. 34). Paper presented at the Eigth, Epidemiologist’s Perspective on the Public, Uncertain Transitions: Ethnographies of Change, . In those days, interferon was produced in only eight industrial, countries; it was considered a potential therapeutic alternative for the treatment of, cancer. In January 1961, the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration broke diplomatic relations with Cuba and banned the US citizens from traveling to the island. . In other words, revolutionary movements ar, and rightness of “the masses.” The singularity, historical irreversibility means that those w, defined as "traitors" or "enemy agents" seeking, dissent. Cuba was making some dangerous enemies, including mobster Meyer Lansky, who lost US$100 million in confiscated hotels and casinos after Castro seized power. In the face of the crisis, Fidel Castro’s government sought above all to protect public health; he did not close any hospitals or medical schools during the special period, even if there were nearly no supplies for upkeep or repairs. Chomsky, Aviva (2000) The Threat of a Good Ex. Language to legalise gay marriage had been added to the first draft of the constitution, supported by the country's current President Miguel Díaz-Canel and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights advocate and Raúl Castro's daughter Mariela Castro. startxref The graying of the Cuba population has been brought in part by a decline in fertility. At the founding meeting of the Alliance for Progress in Uruguay in August 1961, Cuban representative Che Guevara held a secret meeting with the US envoy Richard Goodwin. 0000105610 00000 n Between 1989 and 1993, the gross national product (GNP) dropped. To date, the US economic blockade against Cuba has continued under 11 successive American presidential administrations. Orduñez-García, P. O., et al. Mary O’Grady, writing in the pages of the Wall Street Journal, informed her readers that over 3,000 Cuban have defected, taking advantage of a special visa program the USA offers for those Cuban healthcare professionals working abroad, the Cuban Medical Professional Parole Program (since 2006). Cuban began the practice of medical internationalism right after the triumph of the Revolution. There have been several outbreaks of dengue in Cuba, in 1977, with some 400,000 cases but without yet the deadly hemorrhagic form; in 1981, the worst episode, with 158 deaths in Cuba; in 1997, confined to the city of Santiago in western Cuba, with 3,012 people infected and 12 deaths; a lesser outbreak in 2001 in Havana and Santiago; and in 2006–2007 in Santiago, leading to 13,147 cases and eight deaths.
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