This naphthalimide sulfonate ester will likely react with other nucleophiles too, including thiols, amines, phenols (e.g., tyrosine) and probably histidine. These mechanisms are among some of the most studied in organic chemistry. identify the acid halide, the reagents, or both, needed to prepare a given carboxylic acid, ester or amide. When there are two ester groups on the same carbon chain (a diester), the enolate formed at the alpha carbon atom of one ester group can react with the carbonyl carbon of the other ester group. The low nucleophilicity of carboxylic acids requires that they be converted to anions (typically cesium or quaternary ammonium are used as counterions) before they can be esterified with alkyl halides in organic solvents. Diazoalkanes react without the addition of catalysts and may be useful for direct carboxylic acid modification of proteins and synthetic polymers. This (intramolecular variation of the Claisen condensation is called the Dieckmann condensation. The base would attack the carbonyl carbon and would replace the OR' group. It has been found that a short aliphatic spacer in the amine probe enhances the reaction. Several of the fluorescent hydrazine and hydroxylamine derivatives described in Reagents for Modifying Aldehydes and Ketones—Section 3.3 should have similar utility for carbodiimide-mediated derivatization of carboxylic acids. The Alexa Fluor 405 and Cascade Blue dyes have a second absorption peak at about 376 nm with EC ~80% of the 395–400 nm peak. Create Account, A30674,A30675,A30676,A30677,A30680,A30678,A30679,A1363,A1339,A91,A191,A1351,A1353,A1318,A1340,A10466,A1400,B30633,B2103,B22802,B6057,B1355,C621,C428,D10460,D2390,D6251,D112,D113,E2247,H2249,L2424,M6248,N2461,O10465,P1405,Q10464,S10490,T2425, Click Chemistry and Other Functional Group Modifications—Chapter 3, Derivatization Reagents for Carboxylic Acids and Carboxamides—Section 3.4, Spectroscopy, Elemental & Isotope Analysis, Preclinical to Companion Diagnostic Development, Chromatography Columns, Resins, & Spin Filters, Reagents for Modifying Alcohols—Section 3.2, Reagents for Modifying Aldehydes and Ketones—Section 3.3, Chapter 1—Fluorophores and Their Amine-Reactive Derivatives, Chapter 3—Click Chemistry and other Functional Group Modifications, Chapter 5—Crosslinking and Photoactivatable Reagents, Chapter 6—Ultrasensitive Detection Technology, Chapter 7—Antibodies, Avidins and Lectins, Chapter 8—Nucleic Acid Detection and Analysis, Chapter 11—Probes for Cytoskeletal Proteins, Chapter 13—Probes for Lipids and Membranes, Chapter 14—Fluorescent Tracers of Cell Morphology and Fluid Flow, Chapter 15—Assays for Cell Viability, Proliferation and Function, Chapter 16—Probes for Endocytosis, Receptors and Ion Channels, Chapter 17—Probes for Signal Transduction, Chapter 18—Probes for Reactive Oxygen Species, Including Nitric Oxide, Chapter 19—Indicators for Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+ and Other Metal Ions, Chapter 21—Indicators for Na+, K+, Cl– and Miscellaneous Ions, Chapter 23—Antifades and Other Tools for Fluorescence Applications, Coupling Hydrazines, Hydroxylamines and Amines to Carboxylic Acids, Esterification of Carboxylic Acids with Fluorescent Diazoalkanes, 4-Sulfo-2,3,5,6-Tetrafluorophenol (STP) and N-Hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHSS), Molecular Probes azide and alkyne derivatives—Table 3.1, Molecular Probes hydrazine, hydroxylamine and amine derivatives—Table 3.2, Fluorophores and Their Amine-Reactive Derivatives—Chapter 1, Detecting Peptidases and Proteases—Section 10.4, Introduction to Amine Modification—Section 1.1, Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)—Note 1.2, Biotinylation and Haptenylation Reagents—Section 4.2, Probes for Lipid Metabolism and Signaling—Section 17.4, Thiol-Reactive Probes Excited with Ultraviolet Light—Section 2.3, Chapter 3—Click Chemistry and Other Functional Group Modifications, Hydrazine and amine derivatives of biotin and desthiobiotin (. The carboxylic acids, acid halides, and esters are reduced to alcohols, while the amide derivative is reduced to an amine. H 2 SO 4) / heat,or aqueous NaOH / heat (known as "saponification").
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