geranyl acetate geraniol

Plasmids pLWG 6 and pYJM14 were co-expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) to form strain LWG6. Geranyl acetate is insoluble in water, but soluble in some organic solvents such as alcohol and oil. XX, RZ, TC, and XXL did the lab work, plasmid construction, strain cultivation, fed-batch fermentation, and product detection. This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our websites. The Aes activity was determined by GC-MS monitoring of geraniol produced by the hydrolysis of geranyl acetate. The codon-optimized GES gene was synthesized by Genray Company with plasmid pGH as vector pGH/GES. Fragrance material review on geraniol. Food Microbiol.

Farnesol production from Escherichia coli by harnessing the exogenous mevalonate pathway. The observed findings show a questionable correlation between the effects seen on maternal toxicity and effects seen on the offspring. Overall, data from metabolically related substances do not give indications for adverse effects on fertility.,,, Lapczynski A, Bhatia SP, Foxenberg RJ, Letizia CS, Api AM. FEMS Microbiol Lett. Sangwan RS, Singh-Sangwan N, Luthra R. Metabolism of acyclic monoterpenes: partial purification and properties of geraniol dehydrogenase from lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Stapf.) 2).The highest concentration of geraniol was just 78.8 mg/L after being induced by isopropyl β-d-thiogalactoside (IPTG) for 5 h. Among these, Novozyme 435 was the best catalyst for the synthesis of geranyl acetate in a solvent‐free medium. The Lineweaver–Burk plots suggested a ternary complex with inhibition by ethyl acetate. Privacy Part of An associated 10 day range finding study with 3 female rats per dose using doses of 1000, 750, 500 and 300 mg/kg bw/day led to different grades of skin irritation (scales and erythema) at doses of 500 - 1000 mg/kg bw/d, and no clinical findings of the treated skin in the 300 mg/kg bw/day group. 2012;109(10):2513–22. Google Scholar. Gene. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. 2011;29(6):452–8. It is also obtained semi-synthetically by the condensation of Geraniol with acetic acid. The slightly higher (non-significant) number of stillborns may well be contributed to the greater litter size in this group, which leaves the adverse effects on development of offspring in the mid-dose group to be limited to a slightly reduced pup survival (-9%). The expression of plasmid-born exogenous gene(s) for geraniol production was induced with 0.5 mM IPTG at 30 °C. Nat Chem Biol. 2007;14(2):165–9. Close Find out more on how we use cookies.

Biotechnol Bioeng. Therefore, also the NOAEL for developmental toxicity / teratogenicity is shown to be >300 mg/kg bw/day via the dermal route. Pregnant females were allowed to give birth and the offspring was brought up until postnatal day (PND) 4. 2013;168(4):446–51. 2008;46(Suppl 11):S160–70. Fischer MJ, Meyer S, Claudel P, Perrin M, Ginglinger JF, Gertz C, et al. Specificity of Ocimum basilicum geraniol synthase modified by its expression in different heterologous systems. J Biotechnol. For the high-dose a lower live birth index (89 %) was noted. The full text of this article hosted at is unavailable due to technical difficulties.

Baker’s yeast mediated biotransformation of geraniol into citronellol using a continuous-closed-gas-loop bioreactor (CCGLB) system. CAS  The findings in this one animal appear to be an outlier in this group and excluding this animal from the data would show no significant findings vs. controls. AY362553.1) were analyzed ( and optimized to the preferred codon of E. coli ( online. It is a colorless liquid with a pleasant floral or fruity rose aroma. Biotechnol J. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Biotechnol Bioeng. J Plant Physiol. Antifoam 204 was used to prohibit foam development. The reaction mixture was incubated at 30 °C in a sealed capped tube for 2 h. A blank control with boiled enzyme was also run simultaneously. A new rapid fluorimetric method to determine enzymatic activity. However data from the metabolically and structurally related geraniol and nerol (E- and Z-isomer) are taken into account for further assessment. This was likely to be induced by the unpleasant taste of the test substance or by local irritation of the upper digestive tract. It is designated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). 2010;86(2):419–34.

1993;125(2):185–9. The experiment was performed in triplicate. Overall, it may be considered that the pup effects seen are secondary to maternal toxicity which effects pup care and nursing. The nucleotide sequences of GES gene from O. basilicum (sweet basil) (GenBank No. The content is subject to change without prior notice.Reproduction or further distribution of this information may be subject to copyright protection. To prevent violation, isopropyl myristate was added 4 h after IPTG induction according to one over ten of the fermentation medium volume. J Appl Microbiol. Alleviating monoterpene toxicity using a two-phase extractive fermentation for the bioproduction of jet fuel mixtures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. In high dose females a significant body weight loss was observed during lactation. Geranyl acetate is an important flavor and fragrance compound. Natural flavor ester synthesis catalyzed by lipases. Signal word Warning. Geranyl acetate is a monoterpene with the chemical formula C 12 H 20 O 2. A single colony of LWG6 was grown in LB broth overnight at 37 °C. Int J Food Microbiol. WL and MX designed the research, did the literature review, and prepared the manuscript. The test substance was administered to 10 male and 10 female young Wistar rats dissolved in corn oil. 2005;347(1):189–201. Traditional methods such as extraction from plant materials and direct biosynthesis by fermentation are used for flavor and fragrance production. Email:; IPTG was added to a final concentration of 0.1 mM, and the culture was further incubated at 30 °C for 48 h. The samples were added with the same volume of ethyl acetate, vortexed briefly, and centrifuged to separate the phases, and the organic phase was analyzed by GC-MS. LWG10 strain was used as control. Application area was the intact clipped skin of the back (dorsal and dorsolateral areas of the trunk; not less than 10% of the body surface). Geranyl acetate is a monoterpene (a class of terpene that are most often the product of secondary metabolism in plants), and a natural component of over sixty essential oils. Gamero A, Manzanares P, Querol A, Belloch C. Monoterpene alcohols release and bioconversion by Saccharomyces species and hybrids. Glucose was stopped feeding after 48 h of culture. None of the pups died during lactation in the control group and in all test groups. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Furthermore, relevant physicochemical parameters show comparability between geranyl acetate and neryl acetate. YC and JG helped to revise the manuscript. Fia G, Giovani G, Rosi I. Steyer D, Erny C, Claudel P, Riveill G, Karst F, Legras J-L. Genetic analysis of geraniol metabolism during fermentation. Terms and Conditions, Systemic exposure to geraniol is limited by the strong local irritation effects. A testing proposal with the metabolically related geraniol for either a Two-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats, oral route (test method: EU B.35/OECD 416) or extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study in rats, oral route (test method: OECD 443) is currently evaluated by ECHA. The culture was used to inoculate the same medium (1:100 dilution) and grown at 37 °C until an OD600 of 0.6–0.8 was reached.

An assessment for the necessity of further tests with geranyl acetate will be made based on the outcome of this evaluation and potential results of the study under discussion. About 2 weeks after the beginning of treatment, animals were mated to produce a litter. Methods. Relevant metabolites of geranyl acetate, i.e.

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