how many types of computer language

Fortran is extensively used throughout the world. Two versions were finally approved in March 1966, ASA FOR­TRAN (similar to IBM FORTRAN IV) and ASA BASIC FORTRAN (similar to IBM FOR­TRAN II). Plagiarism Prevention 5. Assembler translates the program written by the programmer into that version which the computer/machine recognizes and responds to, and assembles it in the main memory, ready for execution. Machine language is the language which is directly understood by the computer. CIS-COBOL (Compact, Interactive Standard) is used on personal computers. To understand BASIC it is not necessary to learn complex programming techniques. The fortran compiler, also called the translator or processor, then analyzes these statements and translates them into an object program in machine language. BASIC implies Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. COBOL is a procedure-oriented language designed for coding business data processing prob­lems. The abbreviated words such as MULT, DIV, SUB, ADD, STO (store) etc. BASIC is available on some computers for regular batch compilation from cards, but this use of BASIC is much less common than its use as a time sharing language. Low Level Languages. The object code or program is then stored on some external media. Like all procedure oriented programming languages, COBOL requires a source language for coding instructions and a compiler to convert the source program into a machine language object program. The CODASYL (Conference on Data Systems Languages) Committee developed the specifications for a language named COBOL. Since then it has been used in a number of computers and applications. The latest in the field is FORTRAN 86. Considering the difficulties encountered with the machine language, the assembly languages were developed in 1950’s and were introduced in the second generation computers. This source program acts as an input to the assembler, which is loaded to the computer’s memory. The stupendous task can well be imagined by the fact that a program may consist of more than 100 different operations (instructions) and also hundreds or thousands of locations in memory. The first, is that a machine instruction has a two-part format (Fig. Programs are typed and transmitted line by line to the computer. Subsequent revisions of this language were published in 1961 (COBOL-61), 1963 (COBOL-61 Extended), and 1965. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. This is the source program. The aim of this list of programming languages is to include all notable programming languages in existence, both those in current use and historical ones, in alphabetical order. In other words, the software aid that translates the symbolic language program into a machine language-object program is called the assembler program or assembler. To understand the structure of a machine code or machine language two facts need to be understood. The fortran language, the name being an abbreviation of the two words formula translation is a problem-oriented programming language. Copyright 10. The programmer uses English words and conventional arithmetic symbols to direct and control the complicated operations of the computer. Low-Level Languages: A language that corresponds directly to a specific machine; High-Level Languages: Any language that is independent of the machine; There are also other types of languages, which include. The following are typical COBOL sentences: Multiply Quantity by Price Giving Total Price Add Sales to 600 Giving Total: The COBOL compiler translates these instructions into machine language and the machine language program thus generated is known as object program. Because it resembles familiar arithmetical language, it greatly simplifies the preparation of problems for machine computation. Because machines do differ in their internal organization, a number of dialects of Fortran have developed, each dialect being suited to a class of machines. Since human programmers are more familiar with the decimal system (rather than the binary system), most of them preferred to write instructions in decimal and leave the input device to convert these to binary. Disclaimer 8. Thus, a machine language instruction may look like 563603 where 56 is, for example, the operation aide for addition and 3603 is the address of the memory location where the number to be added is stored. Data processing is the processing of information, specifically business type information, by computer. Such language forms usually consist of special data types, like "color" and "normal". A committee composed of several large users, the federal government, computer manufacturers, and other interested parties was formed to develop the language. Pascal is available on micro-computers. Because of its simplicity and bias towards the user, BASIC is a language well suited for use in education and has become extremely popular with micro computer users. The typewriter may also have a punched paper tape input and output. It was originally designed by Nicklaus Wirth in 1968, belongs to the ALGOL stable and the first operational compiler became available in 1970. One of its more important features is to allow the programmer to structure data in his way. Two Basic Types of Computer Language. The differences between dialects are not severe and one easily adjusts from one to another. Computer language establishes a flow of communication between software programs. Dialects of BASIC, esoteric programming languages, and markup languages are not included. 36.31). In this way, the program can be retrieved and executed again and again when needed. The major application of BASIC is in Time Sharing in which the programmer user has a type writer device such as a Teletype. have to be translated into the binary pattern before the computer can understand the operation intended. COBOL is a higher-order language oriented towards commercial data processing procedures. The disadvantages of BASIC is that it is limited in scope. COBOL has been established as a standard language by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Image Guidelines 4. The main difficulty in utilising machine language lies in the fact that one has to memorise the codes for all sorts of operations as well as the elocution numbers and addresses of all memory boxes. There are no standards for the BASIC language but the Darmouth specifications form the generally agreed-upon heart of the language. It is, in fact, intended for those who have no experience with using computers or writing computer programs. The human mind can more easily identify with mnemonics or abbreviated words such as MULT for multiply, DIV for division etc., than (a series of digits, for example, a computer may be designed to interpret) the machine code 1001 (binary) or 09 (decimal) as the operation-multiply. These types of problems are characterized by the use of large files (organised collection of records having a common feature or purpose), a high volume of input and output, and production of report output requiring editing and formatting of output data. Privacy Policy 9. Prohibited Content 3. Work on a common source language suitable to commercial (as opposed to scientific) data processing began in 1959. Considering the difficulties encountered with the machine language, the assembly languages were developed in 1950’s and were introduced in the second generation computers. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. A shading language is a graphics programming language adapted to programming shader effects. Pascal was developed as a teaching aid to students of programming, but has expanded rapidly that it is now used in business and scientific applications. Computer language or programming language is a coded syntax used by computer programmers to communicate with a computer. Content Guidelines 2. The assembly language program prepared by the user is called source program. When first generation computers were introduced, programs were written only in binary based machine level language. A new standard FORTRAN, called FORTRAN 77, was defined in 1977. Content Filtration 6. System languages: These are designed for low-level tasks, like memory and process management After the program is received, it is executed and the results are typed on the typewriter. Due to the variety of target markets for 3D computer graphics. BASIC has few grammatical rules and can be said to be user rather than system orientated. The source program is then entered by the user via the terminal and is also stored in RAM. ANSI released a new standard-ANSI C-OBOL85 which includes many concessions to modern thinking. In Assembly language, the idea of mnemonics (or memory aids) was introduced. Like machine language, it also being oriented towards the basic design of computers, is called low level language. Such problem-oriented languages (such as Fortran) enable the programmer to write instructions using certain English words and conventional mathematical notations, therefore making it easier for the programmer to think about the problem. Uploader Agreement. Higher level languages, instead of being machine based, are orientated more towards the problem to be solved. The first available high-level language was FORTRAN developed in 1956 for use on an IBM 704 Computer. After reading this article you will learn about the high level and low level computer languages. Like machine language, it also being oriented towards the basic design of computers, is called low level language. This is the only language actually understood by the computer. The alphabet of Fortran includes the following characters: From this alphabet all our symbols, expressions and statements in Fortran language are to be con­structed. Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management, Elements of a Computer System | Information Technology, Difference among Bit, Byte and Words | Computer, Main Peripheral Devices of a Computer (With Diagram). BASIC can be learnt in a few hours concentrated study and, though simple, it is flexible and reasonably powerful. High level languages look similar to the Englidh language, and hence are better understood by the programmers rather than the computers. In a typical computer system, the assembler program is stored on paper tape, magnetic tape or a disk. Terms of Service 7. When it is needed, the assembler is called up from secondary storage and loaded into RAM (Random Access Memory, usually on a chip). In this sense the language is machine independent. Pascal is relatively easy to learn. Account Disable 12. A program written in fortran language can be processed on any machine which has a fortran compiler. It resembles FORTRAN in many respects, making use of standard mathematical notation, but serves business applications equally well. This act of translating is carried out by a special pre-stored program called an assembler. This, though, made the life easier for the programmer, it made things more involved for the computer. The machine language is considered as oldest computer language among all three. The punched paper tape is then transmitted to the computer, saving online connection time. Broadly the computer language can be classified into three categories assembly language, machine language, and high-level language. Computer, Information Technology, Language, Types of Computer Language.

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