Senanayake, D.G. 103: 18389-18394. In soybeans, plant resistance has been shown to be both constitutive and inducible. Deep ploughing after crop harvest can expose the overwintering pupae to sunlight, birds and other natural enemies. The Bt gene transformation in rice was reported for the first time by Fujimoto et al. Losses by insect pests in agriculture Since the beginning of agriculture, crop losses have been attributed to different insect pests. In: Zalucki, M.P. 6.4.6. Larvae are of pinkish colour without strips and red brown head with cylindrical body (Saleem and Shah 2010). and O. Koul (2007). After 714 days adults emerge from pupae and come out of the stem. Ahmad, M. and M.I. 2- Tridecanone, a naturally occurring insecticide from the wild tomato Lycopersicon hirsutum F. glabratum. pp. 517–547. In the same way, some chemicals perform the function of allomones and are used by the predators to mimic the body of their preys (Vander Meer and Wojcik 1982). Chemical control Application of pesticides (0.5 kg ha-1 or 500 m1 ha-1) such as Acephate 75 SP or Dimethoate 30 EC or Malathion 50 EC on leaf whorls to target all stages of black bug (eggs, nymphs, adults) can effectively control this pest. Sci. Eto, K.A. Cell Mol. 2006). Life cycle is completed in 35-40 days. Nat. Vale, R.R. The group of nematodes that are used to control Chafer Grubs are host specific. Potential of weed control in wheat with 24-D in Pakistan. The pest hibernates as larva in the stubbles of sugarcane crop. Physical control Physical control of mango stem borer is to eradicate its grubs outside the plant. Regardless of crop protection measures, assessment of crop losses needed to be explained to develop future strategies to keep pest populations below damaging levels. Unlikely, if the ecosystem is characterized by such biotic and abiotic factors which favour the pest outbreak and population 2 Principles of Insect Pests Management 31 growth, intensified pest management program/strategies become mandatory to avoid the losses by insect pest population (Trenberth 1999; Juang et al. Stimulation of volatiles emission from the host plant Ulmus minor Mill. Saxena (1990). and F.R. (1990). Kaal, K.J. The dsRNAs can also be applied in the form of molecular pesticides after producing large amounts of 9 Biotechnological Approaches for Sustainable Insect-Pest Management 303 dsRNA through the established bacterial expression system. Trenberth, K.E. Mango fruit fly Technical name: Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) Family: Tephritidae Order: Diptera Fig. A total system approach to sustainable pest management. Novel insect control agents based on neuropeptide antagonists: The PK/PBAN family as a case study. HLB can only be managed if its vector, ACP is controlled. Ferro, D.N., B.J. Science. J. Bot. few grubs are a natural occurrence even in the most well-kept gardens. Just get rid of that boring tree from your garden and problem solved It appears the presence of the moth is declining, among other reasons because after the previous years more and more box trees are being replaced: NatureToday: Is de Buxusmot op haar retour? Poppy and W.I. W. Wakil and Y.J. M. anisopliae takes around 5 to 10 days to kill a host insect so scientists have genetically manipulated its genome in such a way that additional copies of the Pr1 gene have been introduced which facilitate its penetration into the cuticle (St. Leger et al. J. Nat. Global status of commercialized biotech/GM crops: 2008. Choi, M.Y., R.K.V. 7.2.4. Pr1 also activates the trypsins which start melanization of the larvae. CABI Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, UK. Ullah, F. Mustafa and J.E. Smagghe, G., T.S. 2008). Ashraf (2003). The correct identification of insects is very crucial before implementing any sort of control measures. Oikos. Schepers, F.J. Pierce and E.J. Rice. Nguyen, N.T. They complete 3 instars to become adult. Shah et al. Insect Pheromones in Plant Protection, John Wilen & Sons Ltd. pp. 2016b). Management Cultural control Avoid ratoon cropping and burning of leaf debris could be effective to reduce infestation Biological control The predatory insect such as Coccinella undicimpuntat L., Menochilus sexmaculatus F., Coccinella septumpunctata L., and Borumoides saturalis F. showed significant reduction (64.06% to 43.81%) of bug infestation when released at the rate of 500 adults/month/plot without application of toxic pesticides (Zada et al. Entomopathogenic Viruses A variety of existing peptides or toxins are ineffective against insect pests when ingested or topically applied. For tank-mixing before spray different solvents like water, oils etc. Cypovirus infection start when larvae consume the virus infected leaf, viron enter into the midgut columnar cell through plasma membrane and replicate only within these cells (Tan et al. 1992). This approach involves the study of plant and herbivores communications in their related food chains. exhibits antixenotic and antibiotic effects against Ostrinia nubilalis, Schizaphis graminum, Sitobion avenae and other insect pests. Rome (Italy). Appl. World Cotton Research Conference III: Cotton for the New Millennium, Agricultural Research Council, Institute for Industrial Crops, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. The MSB accomplished life cycle in 22-33 days and possess several generations in one year. O’Brochta, D.A., P.W. Sterilization of the khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts, with juvenile hormone analogues. Description of stages Adult: Adult of Apple bud moths is 1/2-inch (12.5 mm) long. Hull and G. Krawczyk (2011). 70: 283-285. The soil and climate plays an important role in giving a unique taste and flavor which is distinguished from all cultivars grown all over the world. Managing editors: Iqrar Ahmad Khan and Muhammad Farooq Editors: Muhammad Jalal Arif, John E Foster and Jaime Molina-Ochoa University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The larval period lasts for 15 days.
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