While there is considerable speculation among researchers and observers of industrial buyer behavior on the number and nature of explanations, there is relatively little consensus. Assuming all due credits and citation notes. Howard and Moore, same reference as footnote 2; Levitt, same reference as footnote 2; Westing, Fine, and Zenz, same reference as footnote 4; Shoaf, same reference as footnote 4. The second product-specific factor is type of purchase. The five most salient processes which determine differential expectations, as specified in the model, are discussed below. However, there results greater interaction and communication among the parties, and sometimes an outsider is brought in to reconcile the differences. Primary among these are the expectations of the decision makers about suppliers and brands [(1) in Figure 1]. Before identifying the individuals and groups involved in the buying decision process, a marketer must understand the roles of buying centre members. 7 However, a number of studies have pointed out the critical role of several imp licit criteria such as reputation, size, location and reciprocity relationship with the supplier; and personality, technical expertise, salesmanship, and even life style of the sales representative. It is difficult to prepare a list of ad hoc conditions which determine industrial buyer behavior without decision making. Finally, it is important to realize that not all industrial decisions are the outcomes of a systematic decision-making process. March, and E. M. Krech, Purchasing Department Organization and Authority, American Management Assn. In general, it is found that product users look for prompt delivery, proper installation, and efficient serviceability; purchasing agents look for maximum price advantage and economy in shipping and forwarding; and engineers look for excellence in quality, standardization of the product, and engineering pretesting of the product. The major thrust of the present model of industrial buying decisions is to investigate the process of joint decision making. N. Sheth, The Theory of Buyer Behavior (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1969). 10. The most important aspect of the joint decision-making process, however, is the assimilation of information, deliberations on it, and the consequent conflict which most joint decisions entail. 137-149; Theodore A. Levitt. Interesting article. Why are there substantial differences in expectations? Although there is very little direct evidence, it is logical to hypothesize that the greater the perceived risk in a specific buying decision, the more likely it is that the purchase will be decided jointly by all parties concerned.
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