# matching food to countries

Integrating time into research on food accessibility. Our FII calculation finds that the average rate of food insecurity is 19.3% in SCC. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 33 (3): 281–303. Find your perfect European food destination! GSPP Working Paper, University of Kentucky. Small markets and community food security in the San Francisco Bay Area. Population density, poverty, and food retail access in the United States: An empirical approach. Second Harvest provided geocoded data on food distribution locations. Crossword Country Location Dragon's Lair - Escape by identifying which world region each country is located. 2008. Not only do food banks have a limited relationship with the population they serve, but they also lack direct control over the distribution of the product. Drèze, J., and A. Sen. 1989. The Gundersen study’s model also found statistically significant fixed effects related to the year of analysis, which generally correlate with fluctuations in the US economy, and the state of residence, suggesting the need for attention to the local determinants. Sweet charity? 4). 1), which represents census tracts with 22.2% or more of the population at or below 200% of the FPL. Progress in Human Geography 40 (2): 257–266. Last updated: August 30, 2018. Those without cars must find alternative ways to transport themselves to sites and carry food back from these locations. Hoynes, H.W., E. Bronchetti, and G. Christensen. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 36 (3): 373–386. High food insecurity in this context refers to census tracts in which we estimate that 16.7% of more of the population is food insecure (USDA 2015). American Community Survey. Agric Hum Values 34, 899–919 (2017). For more information, please see my full disclosure policy. In the UK, Oxfam reports that one in five people live below the poverty line, and rising costs of food and energy coupled with stagnant wages has contributed to the rapidly expanding presence of food banks. Hirsch, J.A., and A. Hillier. Compared to past food assistance programs, today’s programs have started to develop a stronger focus on nutrition. Contested space: The contradictory political dynamics of food banking in the UK. 4 and 5, we show the results of the FII using the weights in Eq. In a recently published critical review of the scholarship on food banks, McIntyre and colleagues group the 33 articles they analyzed into those that focus on operational challenges (e.g., effectiveness and accessibility) and those that focus on the broader concerns of poverty and exclusion (e.g., indignity and invisibility of hunger) (McIntyre et al. 2014. Sociology, 1–17. Accessed 25 March 2015. The objective of this study is to assess how well a local food assistance organization serves its clientele from a geographical perspective. Feagan, R. 2007. Food insecurity affects school children’s academic performance, weight gain, and social skills. Disability, age, illness, children, and the social stigma associated with welfare present additional barriers to access. Hunger amidst plenty: Farmworker food insecurity and coping strategies in California. As of 2013, the “4743 organizations included in Food Banks Canada’s annual ‘HungerCount’ provided groceries to 833,098 people through food banks and local distribution centers, and 4,341,659 meals through soup kitchens, shelters, school breakfast programs, and other venues” (Food Banks Canada 2013 cited in Tarasuk et al. endstream endobj 1789 0 obj <>stream We apply these methods in a case study analysis of Santa Clara County, California. In Fig. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/06085.html. Measures of the food environment: A compilation of the literature, 1990–2007. Two notable programs that endure today are the food stamp program, or SNAP, and the WIC program. Eat Some Food And We'll Tell You Which European Country You Should Move To. These regions include the southern US 101 corridor near the cities of Gilroy and Morgan Hill, as well as a generally contiguous group of census tracts that lie west of Interstate 880 and State Road 17 extending from the northern central border of the county in the city of Santa Clara to west San Jose and the intersection of State Roads 85 and 17. Redefining the food desert: Combining GIS with direct observation to measure food access. Gundersen, C., B. Kreider, and J. Pepper. California Agriculture 70 (2): 77–82. 4. Bacon, C.M., W.A. 2016. Such assessments are difficult for food banks in the US, since they act similar to a food wholesaler; they solicit donations of money and food and then distribute food to partner organizations (e.g., soup kitchens, food pantries, and other programs) that often operate like food retailers by providing food directly to clients. The supplemental poverty measure: 2013. On a wine’s alcohol content and food pairing, he advises matching up wines and foods of equal weights. Other studies focus on the injustices and contradictions associated with modern production-oriented food systems e.g., developing case studies showing how low farm worker wages and uncertain immigration status perpetuate food insecurity (Minkoff-Zern 2014a). Food banks operate very differently across the globe. Good access indicates 33% or less of the CT area is outside of the 1-mile buffer around food assistance locations. 2015), and similar results were also found in an ethnographic study conducted in the US (Greer et al. Shannon argues that by defining food deserts “through their absences” researchers and policy makers are using a deficit model that neatly bounds the problem in a way that generally leads to one “solution” which is to open a supermarket in a spatially optimized location (Shannon 2013, p. 11). Second Harvest provided data specifying the location and quantities of food distributed through different programs in 2009. In the second step of our analysis, we incorporated the location and indicators of access to Second Harvest’s network of food pantries and soup kitchens (see Fig. Accessed 15 March 2017. Paynter, S., M. Berner, and E. Anderson. The rise of food banks and the challenge of matching food assistance with potential need: towards a spatially specific, rapid assessment approach, $${\text{FII}}({\text{ct}})={\text{ }}\frac{{\left[ {50 \times {\text{Poverty}}\% \left( {{\text{ct}}} \right){\text{ }}+{\text{ }}40 \times {\text{Unemployed}}\% \left( {{\text{ct}}} \right)+10 \times {\text{Rent}}\% \left( {{\text{ct}}} \right)} \right]}}{{100}}{\text{ }}$$, http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/1565415/err173.pdf, http://www.feedingamerica.org/about-us/about-feeding-america/annual-report/2014-annual-report.pdf, http://map.feedingamerica.org/county/2013/overall, http://www.feedingamerica.org/hunger-in-america/our-research/map-the-meal-gap/how-we-got-the-map-data.html?referrer=http://map.feedingamerica.org/county/2013/overall/california/county/santa-clara?referrer=http://www.feedingamerica.org/hunger-in-america/our-research/map-the-meal-gap/how-we-got-the-map-data.html, http://healthtrust.org/food-for-everyone/, http://higheredtoday.org/2015/06/29/fighting-food-insecurity-on-campus/, https://www.oregonfoodbank.org/our-work/partnerships/community-food-systems/, http://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/emergency-use-only-understanding-and-reducing-the-use-of-food-banks-in-the-uk-335731, http://www.urban.org/research/publication/impossible-choices-teens-and-food-insecurity-america, https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2014/demo/p60-251.pdf?eml=gd&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery, http://www.census.gov/quickfacts/table/PST045214/06085,06081, http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/06085.html, http://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-access-research-atlas/documentation.aspx, http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/242675/ap036_1_.pdf, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-017-9783-y. ����Th\$S���*4R�2�h��9S�P��)ӈٚJ���(k�m�-Ƿ*s!�i��>�f��6�(P�;�BC8Ӱ��d��-4g��p�.k����&s�᳞��g����.4B����V� Concentration ... Identify foods that are common in different cultures and countries. The research was conducted in one urban county. Assessing spatial equity: An evaluation of measures of accessibility to public playgrounds. Food geographies I Relational foodscapes and the busy-ness of being more-than-food. Some 20 years later, the combination of policy reform, civil society initiative, and economic change contributed to the emergence of a national network of more than 230 food banks (Gottlieb and Joshi 2013, p. 94; Feeding America 2014). Low access indicates 67% or more of the CT area is outside of the 1-mile buffer around food assistance distribution locations; Some access indicates 66 to 34% of the census tract area is outside of the 1-mile buffer around food assistance distribution locations. 2013. The increasing size and scope of private food assistance networks suggests the need to approach all dimensions of this challenge, for a better understanding of the impact of these programs, an analysis of how they interact with public food assistance programs, and the development of strategies to more effectively target support. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Bureau. �X�� Weighing in: Obesity, food justice, and the limits of capitalism. Jyoti, D.F., E.A. The role of home gardens in providing food security and community change in San Jose, California. Thus far, research analyzing food banks’ management decisions and strategies used to reach those most in need have not kept up with this rapid expansion (González-Torre and Coque 2016). Wilde, P., J. Llobrera, and M. Ver Ploeg. Answer must correspond to highlighted box. The census tract-based assessment identifying the high food insecurity and low access areas (Fig. We do not include the mountainous region in the eastern portion of the county that has a very low and sparsely populated population. A related study conducted in 2015, documented food pantry client voices as they expressed appreciation for staff and volunteers, but also concerns about stigma, access to enough food, dietary needs related to specific health conditions (e.g., diabetes), food nutrition, and more (Greer et al. Perhaps more disturbing is the number of food-insecure households with children. 2016). The remaining 42% of the areas have high food insecurity levels and low access (shaded in purple). 2009; Hirsch and Hillier 2013; USDA 2015). However, it will be important to use the USDA survey questions during different years and with multiple populations to further test and refine this approach. Gómez, V.E. Second Harvest plans to continue working directly with the food assistance providers to encourage them to locate distribution sites in the areas with the greatest unmet needs. - 92.118.24.89. We believe that the patterns of local food insecurity at the census tract-level found using the rapid assessment tools proposed in this study are similar to those calculated by Feeding America if data were available using a finer scale. Méndez, R. Santos, B. Goldoftas, and I. Dougherty. Agricultural subsidies and food aid, both authorized by the Farm Bill, have survived in part because of support from a rural–urban coalition with rural legislators advocating for farm price support programs and urban legislators supporting nutrition assistance programs. 2015, p. 1). Widener, M.J., and J. Shannon. For the last 15 years, Oregon Food Bank has been at the forefront of the development of one of these solutions: building community-based food systems” (Oregon Food Bank 2016). Food assistance could expand in these areas through partnerships with government social service agencies, as well as community and faith-based institutions serving hot meals with dignity.