The remedial measure recommended is temporary drainage of the rice fields, allowing them to dry until the ground cracks. LT50 values at high temperatures were similar among the four developmental stages, while adults were the most tolerant to low temperatures, and eggs, larvae, and pupae exhibited similar LT50 values. Larvae were observed to make for themselves small chambers near or attached to roots and to use these modified spiracles to pierce rice roots in order to gain access to air found in the dense aerenchyma of rice roots. The parthenogenic weevil, first detected in Tanghai County of Hebei Province in 1988, has become one of the major rice pests in China with yield loss of 10–80%. Heat shock and cold shock increased the expression of all three hsps, and the highest upregulation was observed at 40°C, although the intensity of upregulation varied among the three genes: strongly in Szhsp70, moderately in Szhsp90, and slightly in Szhsc70. Louisiana State University Rice Research Station, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, U.S.A. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. When oxygen is absent or its partial pressure low an oxygen debt is built up and lactic acid accumulates. Pruning of root systems resulted in a decrease in tiller number and shoot biomass of rice plants in the vegetative stage of growth. During the summer small amounts of lactic acid accumulate when the oxygen pressure is low, but during the winter no lactic acid accumulates under such conditions and the metabolism is depressed, an effect distinct from those caused by starvation or by changes in temperature. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society Galleriae Against Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Integrated Pest Management in California Rice, NEOCHETINA SPECIES AND ARTHROPOD COMMUNITIES IN WATER-HYACINTH RAFTS IN SOUTH CAROLINA, Soil abiotic factors influence interactions between belowground herbivores and plant roots. The head-capsule widths of each instar were: 1st, 0.14 to 0.18 mm; 2nd, 0.20 to 0.26 mm; 3rd, 0.28 to 0.38 mm; and 4th, 0.40 to 0.60 mm. Adults lived in cages about three period of 5-14 days; for a total range of 40-57 days. The larvae of the next generation obtained from these adults were reared in the biotron (25±1°C, 16L8D), Greenhouse A (25-32°C, 16L8D), and Greenhouse B (20~32°C, 16L8D). The purpose of the experiments presented in this paper was to investigate methods for rearing larvae and pupae of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, on rice plants in a laboratory in the absence of mud. Feeding by rice water weevil larvae results in stunted root systems, reduced tillering, reduced number of grains per panicle, and reduced grain weight (Zou et al. The Society holds annual meetings in Kansas or nearby states, at which students as well as established entomologists present results of their research or reviews of topics of interest. The entire time required for passing the immature stages in the insectary, from deposition of the egg to transformation to the adult stage, may be as brief as 32 days and as long as 77 days. It was cleared that the adults emerged from a rice plant and a barnyard millet after around 40 days, however, no adult was obtained when tap water was supplied in any cases. Learn more. The respiration rate in response to temperature can be related to the temperatures likely to be encountered and the oxygen supply from the roots. Currently, the pest is managed by integration of insecticides, water management, delayed transplanting, blacklight trapping, application of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae spores and rice cultivars with tolerance to the rice water weevil. By monitoring weevil populations using collections from overwintering sites, from plots of rice planted throughout the growing season, and from light traps, and by dissecting collected weevils to assess the conditions of their fat bodies, flight muscles and ovaries, we concluded that a portion of the weevil population in Louisiana is univoltine, another portion is bivoltine, and another portion may pass through multiple generations if young rice is continually available. A comparison of weevil population dynamics in rice plots planted on different dates supported the use of early planting as a management strategy. 1 per cent) in two ways. Rearing containers were developed in which larvae were reared in a layer of rice roots in water. The oxygen uptake may be depressed after the exposure to the lowered oxygen conditions compared with the initial rate in air or an oxygen debt may be accumulated. When larvae were placed in water, the hydrophobic properties of the exocuticle resulted in a very thin layer of air between the surface of larval body and water. Larvae could also secure an adequate supply of oxygen directly from air, as indicated by survival rates of larvae placed individually in test tubes without water but under conditions of high relative humidity. Weevils appeared to move among overwintering habitats. 2 Both adults and larvae of L. oryzophilus feed on rice plants, but it is feeding by the larval stage that causes economic losses. This is very effective in destroying the larvæ. 3 Yield losses were due to a combination of decreases in panicle densities, numbers of grains per panicle, and grain weights. Adaptations for survival at low oxygen pressures show a seasonal variation. Presence and depth of flood influenced both the proportion of females that oviposited in plants and the number of eggs laid by those females that did oviposit. institution. This item is part of JSTOR collection The response depended on the initial QO2 in airand the pO2 experienced. Survival rates of larvae placed individually in water in test tubes open to air suggest that larvae can obtain oxygen from this air bubble by means of the tracheal system. The swimming behavior of the rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is unique in comparison to that of most other aquatic weevils. Larvae possess modified, hook-like spiracles that allow them to penetrate rice roots. of rice water weevil larvae, were noted, and were thought to be used to penetrate rice root tissues to obtain air. Thus interactions among individuals and their diverse disciplines are fostered. To access this article, please, Kansas (Central States) Entomological Society, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. The Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society provides a forum for entomologists and all other researchers interested in insects or other terrestrial arthropods, their evolution, ecology, behavior, systematics, genetics, physiology, economic uses or control, and conservation. Since then, the pest has expanded its range of infestation at a rate of 10–30km/year. Females deposit their eggs in the submerged leaf sheath or beneath water line of plant or in the roots. The mud surrounding the larvae and roots is anoxic. Its quarterly publication, the Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, now in its 80th annual volume, contains papers by local authors as well as by persons from many other parts of the world. The immature stages of the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus simplex (Say), are passed entirely below the water, either in or among the roots of rice and other aquatic grasses. Unlimited viewing of the article/chapter PDF and any associated supplements and figures. During winter the ambient oxygen partial pressure may fall to 1 per cent if the plants are covered with water. Individuals of the rice water weevil of different stages are required for tests of insecticide efficacy and for experiments on the biology, physiology, chemical ecology and This brings the modes of free swimming (exclusive of skating) to at least 3 by adult aquatic curculionids. Zhitao Zhang, Michael J. Stout, Hanwu Shang and Ryan C. Pousson, Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Published By: Kansas (Central States) Entomological Society, Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. Feeding by L. oryzophilus larvae resulted in extensive damage to root systems. 1 in the Same checks mature larvae were found on the roots of rice and water grasses. insect to heat and cold treatments was assessed at four developmental stages: egg, larva, pupa, and adult. Thus, flooding may influence rice water weevil behavior both directly, by acting as a stimulus for feeding or oviposition, and indirectly, by inducing changes in the suitability of rice plants for feeding or oviposition. Adult weevils invaded rice fields in apparently large numbers prior to flooding. Rice water weevil - Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kushel Each yellow circle surrounds a rice water weevil larva. 4 Injury by rice water weevil larvae is chronic. However, only one generation of weevils developed in a single rice field. When mating pairs of adult weevils were used to infest plants, these methods were sufficient to rear weevils from eclosion of eggs to the final instar.
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