steam distillation of essential oils

For example, in the case of Origanum, Satureja and Thymus species, p-cymene and γ-terpinene constitute the precursors of their phenol monoterpenes carvacrol and thymol (Fig. Similar findings were obtained for essential oils of Thymus vulgaris from Italy (Marino et al., 1999) and Greek Satureja thymbra and S. parnassica (Chorianopoulos et al., 2006a). Sample preparation is generally as described for carboxylic acids above. In this process, two products are obtained: volatile oil and hydrosol. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Handbook of Herbs and Spices (Second Edition), Volume 1, Instrumental assessment of the sensory quality of juices, Instrumental Assessment of Food Sensory Quality, Additives for environmentally compatible active food packaging, Environmentally Compatible Food Packaging, Encyclopedia of Analytical Science (Second Edition), Production of dairy aromas and flavors: New directions, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), Handbook of Herbs and Spices (Second Edition), Volume 2, SPICES AND FLAVORING (FLAVOURING) CROPS | Properties and Analysis. Steam distillation is the most widely used method for the extraction of essential oils and isolation of petroleum components. Steam distillation, the method used in this lab for essential oil extraction, takes advantage of the volatility of a compound to evaporate when heated with steam and the hydrophobicity of the compound to separate into an oil phase during condensation. For example, low pH values induce considerable hydrolysis of linalyl acetate and extensive rearrangement reactions. 2.2). It must be noted, however, that since all essential oils are volatiles, they have to be stored in airtight containers in the dark to prevent compositional changes. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. there is no need for subsequent separation steps. Figure 6.4. Concentration of the extract is then necessary. Quantitative analysis is by extracting biphenyl from the TLC medium with ethanol and measuring the absorbance of resulting solutions at 248 and 300 nm. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The absorbance at 300 nm is used to correct for background absorbance. 2.2. Soon after the steam is produced, it now moves onto a condenser. This technology is based on traditional steam-distillation, but in an advanced way. A macroscale direct method for steam distillation is used to extract the essential oil, which is composed primarily of trans-anethole, from the star anise spice. It is also used for "steam stripping" in petroleum refineries and to separate commercially important organic compounds, such as fatty acids. Separator – This is the final step during the distillation of essential oils. Another disadvantage is that hydrophobic flavor components may be retained by the matrix of the original product, leading to a different composition of the aroma. D.S. The oil separates from the water in the distillate and is collected. Derail et al. ISOLATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS BY STEAM DISTILLATION. Steam distillation is utilized in extracting essential oils at temperatures near to 100°C, followed by subsequent condensation to form an immiscible liquid from which the essential oil can be separated in a clarifier. When the steam is condensed back into its original liquid form, the ending result … A few months later, as the premature vegetative stage approaches, the level of monoterpene precursors is restored (Fig. Some degradation can take place during the storage of essential oils, especially for oxygenated components. However, there is also much experimental evidence that minor constituents play a critical role in antibacterial activities, possibly via a synergistic effect with other components. Do not stop or alter your current course of treatment. The mixture of hot vapours is collected and condensed in order to produce a liquid in which the oil and water form two distinct layers. Steam distillation (SD) has been applied to flavour extraction in different juices for identification purposes (Hinterholzer and Schieberle, 1998). However, high temperatures may affect the composition of the aroma obtained, because of degradation of heat-sensitive flavor components. Hence, a knowledge of both methods should give you a vague idea on how the process will take place. Despite the presence of many major constituents that display antibacterial activity, the antibacterial properties of some essential oils are mainly attributed to their phenol monoterpenes content (Cosentino et al., 1999). Finally, the composition of essential oils obtained from different parts of the same plant may also vary significantly. Tassou, ... G-J.E. Take note of proper amounts you use, the right level of temperature, the right amount of pressure, and many other factors. B.L. Subsequent oxidation with ferric ions gives rise to a blue complex, which is extracted into butanol for spectrophotometric measurement. Juliana M. Prado, ... Smain Chemat, in Food Waste Recovery, 2015. In addition, steam distillation is highly non-selective and may result in the extraction of undesirable components from the plant. This method is used by many because it requires less steam, produces more oil, and takes less time to complete. Terpene alcohols and esters, especially, undergo a variety of well-known chemical reactions (hydrolysis, hydration, and cyclization), in particular under acidic conditions. Steam distillation has been in use for essential oil extraction for many years. Research on the essential oils of Greek Origanum, Satureja and Thymus plants has indicated that these monoterpenes always represents the bulk of the essential oil, regardless of cultivation site (Kokkini et al., 1997; Chorianopoulos et al., 2004, 2006a, 2007) and/or harvesting time (Fig. 2.1. Steam distillation is largely used because it presents several advantages compared with the other extraction processes: the method generates organic solvent-free products. Biosynthesis of monoterpenic phenols (carvacrol and thymol). The low-pressure saturated steam flows up through the matrix, collecting the evaporated compounds. Literature reports have indicated that essential oils extracted from herbs with hexane exhibit superior antimicrobial activities compared with the corresponding essential oils obtained by steam distillation (Burt, 2004). Mottram, J.S. Analysis of the chemical composition of essential oils obtained from plants has been carried out using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Salzer, 1977; Daferera et al., 2000; Juliano et al., 2000; Jerkovic et al., 2001; Delaquis et al., 2002). 2.1; Muller-Riebau et al., 1997; Cosentino et al., 1999; Jerkovic et al., 2001; Ultee et al., 2002; Chorianopoulos et al., 2006a). 6.4c), the matrix is in direct contact with the boiling water either by floating or by being completely immersed depending on its density.

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