wood energy definition

[13] In an attempt to provide quantitative information about the relative output of CO2 to produce electricity of domestic heating, the United Kingdom Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) has published a comprehensive model comparing the burning of wood (wood chip) and other fuels, based on 33 scenarios. This summary is free and ad-free, as is all of our content. Today, burning of wood is the largest use of energy derived from a solid fuel biomass. You can help us remain free and independant as well as to develop new ways to communicate science by becoming a Patron! Stoves were manufactured or constructed pieces of equipment that contained the fire on all sides and provided a means for controlling the draft—the amount of air allowed to reach the fire. The particular form used depends upon factors such as source, quantity, quality and application. material is dried, mechanically fractioned to size, and extruded under intense The Franklin stove was developed in the United States by Benjamin Franklin. An alternative that is increasing in popularity are wood gasification boilers, which burn wood at very high efficiencies (85-91%) and can be placed indoors or in an outbuilding. Fossil fuels are non-renewable forms of energy. Plantation wood is rarely used for firewood, as it is more valuable as timber or wood pulp, however, some wood fuel is gathered from trees planted amongst crops, also known as agroforestry. A period of innovation followed, with many small manufacturers producing stoves based on designs old and new. We can convert human sewage and animal manure into biogas, which we can then burn as a fuel. In the United States, wood fuel is the second-leading form of renewable energy (behind hydro-electric). The shortage of suitable firewood in some places has seen local populations damaging huge tracts of bush possibly leading to further desertification. Airtight stoves became common in the 19th century. After the 1967 Oil Embargo, many people in the United States used wood as fuel for the first time. Oil and gas will run out one day. The use of wood as a fuel source for heating is much older than civilization and is assumed to have been used by Neanderthals. Metal stoves are often lined with refractory materials such as firebrick, since the hottest part of a woodburning fire will burn away steel over the course of several years' use. As a result, forest fires occurred, along with floods and soil erosion. [1] Demand for timber resources was on the rise not only for fuel, but also for construction of ships and buildings, and consequently deforestation was widespread. And because plant matter can be regrown, it’s a renewable source of energy. For example, in one state a pile of wood 8 feet wide × 4 feet high of 16"-long logs will often be sold as a "face cord", though its volume is only one-third of a cord. One obvious advantage that biomass fuels have over other energy sources is that biomass is renewable: We can grow more plants, but nobody can make more oil. [citation needed] Particulate air pollution can contribute to human health problems and increased hospital admissions for asthma & heart diseases. Biomass sustainability and Carbon Policy Study: Report to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources. The magazine "Wood Burning Quarterly" was published for several years before changing its name to "Home Energy Digest" and, subsequently, disappearing. The renewable nature of biomass energy, however, can greatly reduce this environmental impact. Environment Protection Authority (2002) Wood heaters, open fires and air quality. Consumer grade hydraulic log splitters were developed to be powered by electricity, gasoline, or PTO of farm tractors. thus they were popular for over one hundred years. The remaining ten percent was from municipal waste. Diamond, Jared. Total demand for fuel increased considerably with the industrial revolution but most of this increased demand was met by the new fuel source coal, which was more compact and more suited to the larger scale of the new industries. Animal manure, landfill waste, wood pellets, vegetable oil, algae, crops like corn, sugar, switchgrass, and other plant material—even paper and household garbage—can be used as a biomass fuel source. [14] The model's output is kilogram of CO2 produced per Megawatt hour of delivered energy. Biomass energy is the use of organic material to generate energy. Manure, for example, is organic material. Cast iron is among the more common. Get daily tips and tricks for making your best home. In 2013, the main pellet consumers in Europe were the UK, Denmark, the Netherlands, Sweden, Germany and Belgium, as U.E. Roughly three to four percent of America's energy comes from biomass, while 84 percent comes from fossil fuels like natural gas, coal, and petroleum. As a sustainable energy source, wood fuel also remains viable for generating electricity in areas with easy access to forest products and by-products. Wood may be used indoors in a furnace, stove, or fireplace, or outdoors in furnace, campfire, or bonfire. The US Energy Information Administration has the following definition: “Biomass is organic material that comes from plants and animals, and it is a renewable source of energy.”. One by-product of wood burning is wood ash, which in moderate amounts is a fertilizer (mainly potash), contributing minerals, but is strongly alkaline as it contains potassium hydroxide[8] (lye). Partnerships have been developed with: The Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry; USDA Forest Service; Researchers, foresters, the wood products industry, and Pennsylvania citizens [6], In 2008, wood for fuel cost $15.15 per 1 million BTUs (0.041 EUR per kWh). See more. In many areas, wood is the most easily available form of fuel, requiring no tools in the case of picking up dead wood, or few tools, although as in any industry, specialized tools, such as skidders and hydraulic wood splitters, have been developed to mechanize production. These sources, therefore, reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and nuclear energy while also reducing the negative impacts—noise, smell, vermin, declines in property values—that are associated with landfills. On the other hand, scenario 32 in that same reference, which concerns production of heat from wood chips that would otherwise be made into particleboard, releases only 239 kg of CO2 per MW h delivered energy. oil) and gases from the gasification of these fuels. Biofuel, renewable energy source that is derived from plant, algal, or animal biomass. Early examples included a fire constructed inside a tent. Biomass is just organic matter – think, stuff that’s made in nature – like wood pellets, grass clippings and even dung. Historically, it was limited in use only by the distribution of technology required to make a spark. Learn more about the types and manufacture of biofuels … Wood fuel (or fuelwood) is a fuel such as firewood, charcoal, chips, sheets, pellets, and sawdust. [17] As of 1995, approximately 1.85 million cubic metres of firewood (1m³ equals approximately one car trailer load) was used in Victoria annually, with half being consumed in Melbourne. Biomass definition, the amount of living matter in a given habitat, expressed either as the weight of organisms per unit area or as the volume of organisms per unit volume of habitat. solids (fuelwood and charcoal), liquids (black liquor, methanol, and pyrolitic Wood can improve energy efficiency. A "thrown cord" is firewood that has not been stacked and is defined as 4 ft wide x 4 ft tall x 10 ft long. To develop renewable energy resources in PA forests, it is essential to understand the how these trees can be harvested in a sustainable way with minimal impact on forest ecosystems. Low pollution/slow combustion stoves are a current area of research. The conditions in which wood is burnt will greatly influence the content of the emission. Greenpeace has published a report, "Fueling a Biomess," that finds large-scale growth in biomass energy has extended beyond waste sources like sawdust and paper mill waste, and whole trees and other important forest habitat are now being destroyed: Though it's an ancient source of energy, biomass energy still has a long way to go before it replaces other energy sources like fossil fuels and nuclear energy. A brief resurgence in popularity occurred during and after the 1973 energy crisis, when some believed that fossil fuels would become so expensive as to preclude their use. Use of wood heat declined in popularity with the growing availability of other, less labor-intensive fuels. [citation needed], In some of the most efficient burners, the temperature of the smoke is raised to a much higher temperature where the smoke will itself burn (e.g. [9], Slow combustion stoves increase efficiency of wood heaters burning logs, but also increase particulate production. In contrast to civilizations in relatively arid regions (such as Mesopotamia and Egypt), the Greeks, Romans, Celts, Britons, and Gauls all had access to forests suitable for using as fuel. Other experts, however, have found that industrial-scale biomass energy development is wreaking havoc on the natural environment and on air quality. Economic production of the "low use" wood may increase land values and enhance forest landowner's revenues. Inefficient and incomplete combustion of wood can result in elevated levels of greenhouse gases other than CO2, which may result in positive emissions where the byproducts have greater Carbon dioxide equivalent values. In many countries, people have to separate their household waste. Biofuel is advocated as a cost-effective and environmentally benign alternative to petroleum and other fossil fuels. 294–304 pp. Understanding the potential of each of these strategies on the economic returns, the logistics, the feedstock requirements and the potential sustainability of these potential systems are the objectives of the Woody Biomass Utilization Education Program. Standing dead timber is considered better still, as it is both seasoned, and has less rot. Wood heat was gradually replaced by coal and later by fuel oil, natural gas and propane heating except in rural areas with available forests. EPA's mandatory smoke emission limit for wood stoves is now 4.5 grams of smoke per hour (g/h) under Step 1 of the revised standards of performance for wood burning room heaters; Step 2 will take effect on May 15, 2020, when the standard will be lowered to 2.0 g/h.

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